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One of the important DNA repair pathways is base excision repair (BER), which plays in the human body to maintain DNA integrity, prevent cancer and DNA damage. X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) is the most important DNA repair protein in base excision repair (BER) pathways and has been reported to have a relationship with the risk of developing various cancers. The study was purposed to assess the genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 exon 6 and 10 as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. A total of 90 participants were enrolled in this study, consisted of 30 thyroid cancer patients as a case group and 60 non-cancer patients as a control group. Examination of XRCC1 genotypes was carried out by using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and statistical analysis using a Chi-square test. In this study, we reported the frequency of XRCC1 genetic polymorphism was not significantly different between cancer patients and control groups both in exon 6 and 10, and we predict that these polymorphisms were not a risk factor for thyroid cancer (P-value>0.05). In conclusion, both mutant variants of XRCC1 exon 6 and 10 are not risk factors for thyroid cancer. In further studies, it is necessary to assess genetic polymorphisms in populations with controlled non-genetic factors, such as diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors.
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